UK Thermography Authority Bulletin No.2 June 2017

Foreword:

Following my previous bulletin I’m delighted to announce that the UKTA Competent Persons’ Scheme (CPS) was launched during the Infrared Thermography session at the Condition Monitoring World Congress in London on the 15th June. I have attached a copy of the launch presentation, which was delivered by Bruce Arnold, chairman of the BREEAM/HQM sub-committee.

UKTA_CPS_Launch_June17

CPS Way-ahead:

At the last UKTA meeting, the members instructed Bruce Arnold to make contact with ILCA to formally start the ball rolling with the scheme. To this end Bruce has completed the final draft of the Scheme Operating Document, a copy of which is also attached with this bulletin. It is in the same format as those for the DCLG Energy Assessment (DEA, NDEA and DEC), DECC Green Deal and ATMA schemes. Bruce and I would welcome any comments you might have.

Bruce is also putting the finishing touches to the buildings scheme Survey Technical and Reporting Requirements (STRR – was IRR) document, which I will email to all those on the current UKTA Approved Thermographers list as soon as it is ready – again for comment –in the next week or two. Kristian Westerhold and Patrick Quirin are working on the equivalent electrical scheme and we hope to start work on the veterinary (equine) scheme soon.

In the July bulletin I will ask for current approved building thermographers to volunteer to become members of the Technical Committee and scheme auditors. This will require a firm commitment but UKTA/ILCA will deliver audit training and I expect the UKTA to pay travel expenses and there will be a yet-to-be agreed fee per audit. I will include the terms of reference (TORs) for Technical Committee members, and auditors, with this bulletin.

The programme over the next few months is:
• By end June, issue STRR to current approved members for comment
• July – bulletin, invitations to, and TORs for, Technical Committee and auditors
• August/September – bulletin, inaugural Technical Committee meeting – probably at BSRIA
• October – bulletin, auditor training, invitations to join scheme, terms and conditions of scheme membership & scheme costs.
• November 1st – Building scheme ‘vesting day’
• November & December – bulletin & building scheme ‘shakedown’
• January 2018 – bulletin and building scheme go’live.
For those wanting to know more about the Competent Persons Scheme Conditions of Authorisation please download the document using the button below.

CPS Conditions of Authorisation

Regards

Eur Ing Keith Maynard BSc(Hons), CEng, MICE

t: 01276 29727
m: 07762 443 889
e: [email protected]

UKTA Newsletter – June 2017

The cancelled AGM which was scheduled for 30th November has been rearranged for the 13th June 2017 and will be held at the First World Congress for Condition Monitoring at the ILEC conference centre in London and we would be delighted if you could attend. Please contact Matthew Calver at BINDT for details
Direct Dial +44 (0) 1604 438259     Email: [email protected]   

This second Newsletter of 2017 not only gives us an update of the activities during the last year, but also highlights several events and initiatives whereby UKTA is hopefully addressing your requests made to BINDT back in 2015. Our top three items were:

  1. More support from BINDT
  2. More promotion via seminars and networking
  3. Improve UKTA’s reputation

Hopefully you will be able to see that we are making progress in these areas and I commend the good works of the UKTA Committee to you and wish to thank them on our joint behalves. At the AGM you will have hear requests asking for assistance with committee roles such as treasurer, event’s organiser, website/advertising. May I make that request to you now? Please join the committee and volunteer your services if you feel that you can do so.

We get a few requests from new people wishing to join UKTA and the wider world of thermography. We also get moans and groans that not enough is being done, but what we don’t get is new people with keen interest to come on board (the committee) and do something about it. UKTA cannot be a one-man-band.

At a UKTA meeting in September a presentation was made for the initiation and administration of the Competent Persons Scheme (hereinafter referred to as Scheme) – together with all of its administration. This is based upon the Chart which was agreed by the previous UKTA Committee in association with our Chief Executive Cameron Sinclair back at a meeting in Oxford in 2015. It was also presented as a ‘handover document’ at the AGM last November 2015.It is precisely this chart that we are following and implementing.

Subsequently a proposal was made to implement  such a Scheme and in March Cameron Sinclair – CEO Bindt, Caroline Bull – President BINDT and myself formulated and signed up to a joint UKTA – ILCA agreement. See the UKTA website for a copy of this Agreement. Of course, any other, interested company/person may also make proposals to UKTA to have their specialist area included as an UKTA scheme as we are trying to facilitate a framework within which their particular area(s) of interest could be certified.

The first Scheme is for Thermographic Imaging of Building Structures. We therefore have the imminent launch of the Buildings Competent Persons Scheme in association with BRE which is intended to cover BREEAM and Home Quality Mark (HQM) assessment methodologies. The ultimate aim is to persuade DCLG to include infrared thermography in Building Regulations Part L Approved Documents as a means of compliance checking in addition to Air Tightness testing. A UKTA Sub-committee was formed for this to make it less onerous on the whole UKTA committee.

The Electrical* and thereafter the Veterinary Competent Persons Schemes – again each with its own sub-committee, are also being developed. (*this is at serious discussion stage with the Fire Protection Agency / Risk Authority with the next meeting scheduled for mid 2017)

Currently, UKTA is linked to BINDT through the Condition Monitoring Technical Committee (CMTC) as a Special Interest Group and we have had UKTA representation at their meetings in Northampton throughout the year. The next CMTC is in June 2017.

CMTC in its own quest is seeking expertise in machine condition monitoring for the food production industry and is keen to work with UKTA and our thermographers to create expertise as well as commercial opportunities. If you have a particular interest here – let me know.

We have a similar link to the Infra-Red Thermography Working Group (IRTWG) which meets 4/5 times a year. Of particular note is the work being done by IRT to update and reaffirm all the PCN examination questions and other criteria together with a comprehensive set of standards and universally appropriate vocabulary for thermography. At this time it is interesting to see a new ISO Standard  18434-1: 2008 Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics of Machines –Thermography and ISO/DIS 9869-2  Thermal Insulation Building Elements –in-situ measurement of thermal resistance and thermal transmittance – Part 2: Infrared method for wood frame dwelling and of course ISO6781, Performance of buildings – Detection of heat, air and moisture irregularities in buildings by infrared methods.

I do think that we all have a job to do in making it clear to our clients (those engaging thermographers for surveys, reports, “recommendations”)  and other members of any professional team with whom we may be engaged, to stipulate what we are professionally competent and qualified to execute in thermography e.g. IEE/IEEE, ICE, IMechE, RCVS

Trading Standards:

To this end, BINDT and UKTA have just engaged in a ‘process of clarification’ with the UK Trading Standards body http://www.tradingstandards.uk/ . There is a fraud charge being processed. The following is an abstract from the court papers and the case will be heard in 2018:

In summary under Sections 1), 2) and 12 of the Fraud Act 2006 the charge relates to a company (with the consent and connivance of a director):

Entering into a course of conduct (between the 10 February 2011 and the 5 September 2011) by dishonestly making false representations with an intention to make a gain for itself or another in that it did publish claims that, upon completion of a thermography course, a person would be able to register with the Medical and Veterinary Division of the UKTA whereas this was not a requirement to register with that Association.

The expert witness statements produced by UKTA will, apparently, not be challenged.

BINDT and UKTA cannot endorse nor condone these inaccurate claims by thermographers nor do we have jurisdiction over the precise Terms and Conditions of Contractual Engagement. We would however caution against overplaying of qualifications.

Meetings:

UKTA Committee members along with me are members of, or have been actively liaising with, several learned institutions and industry-leading organisations to seek mutual ‘leverage’ and better awareness of the benefits of infrared thermography, including:

  • Royal Institute of British Architects. RIBA
  • Institution of Mechanical Engineers. IMechE
  • Building Research Establishment. BRE
  • Fire Prevention Authority and the Risk Authority. FPA
  • British Institute of Facilities Management. BIFM
  • Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. RICS
  • Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. CIBSE

…..and others where relationships are developing.

Events 2017:

  • Presentation to the FPA – Risk Authority in January 2017.
  • Joint BIFM – UKTA meeting in January 2017 at The National Archives, Kew.
  • North East Scotland Branch of BINDT presentation Thermography in Practice.
  • IMechE Thermography presentations – http://events.imeche.org/ViewEvent?e=6474
  • Series of Thermography presentations at First World Congress on Condition Monitoring – Earl’s Court June ‘17.
  • Support for SATRO & STEMS as they encourage school children to consider a career in the sciences – thus showing Thermography as an example.

Organisation:

http://www.bindt.org/about-us/Institute-Organisation/
I put this in to show how we at UKTA currently sit within BINDT. We are subject to BINDTs Articles of Association but have the authority to set our own terms of reference as a special interest group therein.

Midsummer House
Riverside Way
(off A248 Bedford Road)
Northampton  NN1 5NX

Regards
Eur Ing Keith Maynard  BSc(Hons), CEng, MICE

t: 01276 29727
m: 07762 443 889
e: [email protected]

Thermography to Support BREEAM

BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment Method) is the leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings and communities. It sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the de facto measure used to describe a building’s environmental performance.
UKTA (United Kingdom Thermography Authority) is a special interest group affiliated to BINDT (British Institute of Non Destructive Testing) and promotes the professional application of thermography to all branches and applications of the technology.
At this time, UKTA is devising a Competent Persons Scheme (CPS) whereby professionally qualified thermographers can be called upon to carry out surveys in the built environment such that, in association with a BREEAM assessor, credits can be awarded to projects as part of their overall BREEAM Assessment.
Having already engaged with BRE, UKTA has formed a sub-group to look specifically at the creation of a Competent Persons Scheme which BRE, UKTA and its appropriately qualified members can be engaged on projects where the developer, design team and contractor, through a BREEAM ASSESSOR, can gain credits by the adoption of a UKTA – BREEAM Thermographic Survey.
To this end, the Scheme Operating Requirements (SOR) and the Survey and Reporting Requirements (SRR) documents are now into penultimate draft stages. Bruce Arnold, a UKTA Committee Member and immediate past-Chairman of the IMechE Construction and Building Services Division (CBSD) is leading on these documents and overseeing progress.

The BREEAM CPS scheme is being set up as a pilot with ultimate aim of presenting the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG) with a tried and tested, fit for purpose check (together with air pressure testing) for Building Regulations compliance in accordance with approved documents ADL1A/ADL2A.
The following timescale is what we are working towards:

  1. Joint BINDT/UKTA letter of authorisation to set up UKTA Competent Persons Scheme (CPS) to be operated by ILCA in accordance with UKTA Scheme Operating Requirement (SOR) and Survey & Reporting Requirements (SRR) documents.
  2. Produce the final drafts of the SRR and SOR – end May 2017
  3. Draw up a Project Plan for BREEAM thermography as a pilot scheme.
  4. Issue to UKTA committee members with agenda for next UKTA meeting scheduled while the CM World Congress is in session -13th June 2017. Committee members to either endorse Bruce’s document or bring specifics to the meeting in June.
  5. Final draft by early July 2017
  6. Copy then to BINDT for input comments end of July 2017
  7. Subject to BINDT approval, advise BRE early September 2017
  8. Publish scheme requirements on UKTA website
  9. Establish administration and governance in parallel with the above – May through end 2017.
  10. Launch the Scheme – November 2017.

UKTA Newsletter – July 2016

Keith Maynard, Chairman

Keith Maynard, Chairman

Forward:

2016 began with UKTA re-engaging with our members and establishing new and existing members onto the UKTA Committee. We are all still much focussed on addressing all the requests made in August 2015 when Wendy Poole – CM Team Leader at BINDT / UKTA contacted everyone. Our top three items were:

  1. More support from BINDT Keith Maynard, Chairman
  2. More promotion via seminars and networking
  3. Improve UKTA’s reputation

Currently, UKTA is linked to BINDT through the Condition Monitoring Technical Committee (CMTC) as a Special Interest Group and we have had UKTA representation at their meetings in Northampton in March and May. The next CMTC is in August. We have a similar link to the Infra-Red Thermography Working Group (IRT) which meets 4/5 times a year. Of particular note is the work being done by IRT to update and reaffirm all the PCN examination questions and other criteria together with a comprehensive set of standards and universally appropriate vocabulary for thermography. At this time it is interesting to see a new ISO Standard  18434-1: 2008 Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics of Machines –Thermography and ISO/DIS 9869-2  Thermal Insulation Building Elements –in-situ measurement of thermal resistance and thermal transmittance – Part 2: Infrared method for wood frame dwelling.*

UKTA has met in its own right in January, April and June and our next full Committee meeting will be at our new offices Midsummer House, Riverside Way, Northampton NN1 5NX Tuesday 20 September 2016 @ 10.30am. (All committee’s minutes are Confidential to Committee members after signature of a Confidentiality Agreement.)

UKTA Sub Committees:

We have work underway with sub-committees to establish Competent Persons Schemes for appropriately qualified Thermographers. The first of such schemes is for thermographers to be appointed under the BREEAM scheme whereby assessors can take an ‘approved’ thermographic BREEAM report for consideration to award additional BREEAM points on new and refurbished building fabrics. A sub-committee of UKTA headed up by a team member (Bruce Arnold) is working closely with BRE to launch the scheme later this year. We met BRE in April at their Watford offices. https://ukta.org/news/

Similarly, Kristian Westerhold is chairing a sub-committee of UKTA to establish a Competent Persons Scheme for electrical thermographers (more precisely to reference thermography inspection methodology, safety procedures and in-depth information on arc flash.)

This work on Competent Persons Schemes is not to negate any of the existing investigations, surveys and reports being carried out by UKTA Thermographers, but rather to enhance and safeguard both thermographer and ‘client’.

We do also have interest in similar schemes for Veterinary / equine and this is being considered in more detail at this time. CMTC in its own quest is seeking expertise in machine condition monitoring for the food production industry and is keen to work with UKTA and our thermographers to create expertise as well as commercial opportunities. If you have a particular interest here – let me know.

I do think that we all have a job to do in making it clear to our clients (those engaging thermographers for surveys, reports, “recommendations”)  and other members of any professional team with whom we may be engaged, to stipulate what we are professionally competent and qualified to execute in thermography e.g. IEE/IEEE, ICE, IMech E, RCVS

Trading Standards:

To this end, BINDT and UKTA have just engaged in a ‘process of clarification’ with the UK Trading Standards body http://www.tradingstandards.uk/ as it appears that some purveyors of thermography are using the UKTA to claim professional standing in veterinary and clinical expertise. Obviously, clients engaging thermographers will only respond to what they are purportedly told. BINDT and UKTA cannot endorse nor condone these inaccurate claims by thermographers nor do we have jurisdiction over the precise Terms and Conditions of Contractual Engagement. We would however caution against overplaying of qualifications. A full statement in respect of the Trading Standards dialogue will be published in due course.

Annual Thermography Conference:

Infrared Training Ltd. Graciously hosted the 1st Annual Thermography Conference at its Liverpool offices in May, I was most impressed by the eloquence and passion of the all the speakers as they presented their own experiences of thermography. BINDT/UKTA participated at the conference with a table-top exhibition to promote our joint interests and sign up new members to UKTA. At this time it is proposed to hold our 2017 Annual Conference co-located with the First World Congress on Condition Monitoring at the ILEC Conference Centre in London 13-16 June 2017. UKTA will be working with BINDT, CMTC and others to establish a precise programme and make invitations for attendees, presenters, sponsors and the like.

Trade Show:

We had a taste of thermography in the wider field of Thermal Engineering when we took a BINDT/UKTA trade show stand at the Thermal Engineering Exhibition at the Roundhouse in Derby at the beginning of June. This show was run together with an IMech E conference entitled ‘Thermal Engineering for Transport: Optimal Thermal Engineering and Design under Key Weight, Space and Cost considerations’. Again, we are hoping that the seeds sown there with attendees and other exhibitors will bear fruit for UKTAs top three on the wish list.

55th Annual Conference and Exhibition:

12-14 September in Nottingham will see the 55th Annual BINDT Conference.

UKTA will be manning an exhibition stand at the conference. You are welcome to join us.

http://www.bindt.org/events/NDT-2016/

BREXIT:

And what about BREXIT? What does your particular Institution (IEE, IMech E etc.) have to say regarding its continuation as a European – as well as worldwide organisation? For my part from ICE I received a statement which assures members of a business as usual approach once the current Vs future modus operandi is clear.

There is something called the Washington Accord  http://www.ieagreements.org/Washington-Accord/signatories.cfm  whereby professional qualifications are recognised. BINDT, in response to my request from UKTA for a statement on the post BREXIT impact on BINDT/UKTA have the following two references:

http://www.bindt.org/News/July-2016/the-engineering-profession-unites-to-provide-advice-to-government-for-eunegotiations/

http://www.engc.org.uk/news/news/engineering-council-statement-following-the-eu-referendum/

Yes, BINDT and UKTA do have a life beyond Europe.

….and by the way, I picked up the following flyer from a community bank in Austria

Thermography Flyer Austria

Membership:

Whilst writing about membership, it may be prudent for UKTA to consider broadening its membership as I feel this must be the way ahead. Broadening UKTA and BINDT’s reach by opening up membership to non-qualified engineers is a big step, but members should trust that this is one of many decisions that need to be taken. In particular, BINDT recently asked for votes in respect of the Affiliate title. There had to be a ‘call to arms’ as there were insufficient responses by the first ballot due-date. BINDT proposed to make its membership more accessible by merging the titles of Associate and Affiliate in order to create a knowledge grade. The alternative of staying as we were would leave the entry bar so high that interested thermographers may shun our special interest group(s) and seek (or claim) alternative accreditation. I would certainly not wish UKTA to become marginalised by economists, financiers, planners, accreditors or think-tanks such that all we are called to do is crunch numbers/interpret thermograms while strategic advice is sought elsewhere. So what? BINDT was established in 1976 from a preceding body of 1954 and UKTA in 2004 when we had an optimistic vision for the future. I believe we have similar opportunities today especially with the digital revolution and its internet of the future.

How do you countenance the comparison of say PCN2 Thermography (and even IMechEng’s new PCN 3 courses) http://www.bindt.org/News/march-2016/imeche-engineering-training-solutions-appoints-new-level-3-services-consultant/  and cross-rail engineers who, according to Costain’s Senior Tunnel Engineer can be trained in 5 minutes to operate a method of thermography called SMUTI – Strength Monitoring Using Thermal Imaging?

http://www.transport-network.co.uk/New-concrete-strength-test-trialled-successfully/12814

Here the sprayed concrete tunnel linings need to be analysed/tested to determine compressive strength of the concrete. The exothermic cement hydration gives us the clue. Monitoring the thermal changes gives a direct correlation to concrete strength. To be fair to the operatives under Costain’s Senior Tunnel Engineer’s charge, he does insist on a 90 minute training course to explain the technical background.

It is precisely this application of thermography that I believe can attract affiliates to UKTA.

Organisation:

http://www.bindt.org/about-us/Institute-Organisation/

I put this in to show how we at UKTA currently sit within BINDT. We are subject to BINDTs Articles of Association but have the authority to set our own terms of reference as a special interest group therein.

New Address:

BINDT and UKTA move to our new offices in August.

Midsummer House
Riverside Way
(off A248 Bedford Road)
Northampton
NN1 5NX

NDT News:

Take a look at UKTA… http://www.bindt.org/News/june-2016/uk-thermography-authority-going-forward/

And

http://www.bindt.org/News/june-2016/ired-announces-launch-of-new-aerial-inspection-services/

Wishing you all a warm and thermographically enjoyable summer.

Keith Maynard

UKTA attend the Thermal Engineering Show in Derby

The UKTA and BINDT were at the Thermal Engineering Show on the 2nd June at the Roundhouse, Derby.

We heard from Airbus, Alstom, Aston Martin, Boeing, Jaguar Land Rover and Rolls-Royce discuss best practices for thermal management design, simulation and packaging in transportation and optimising design under weight and cost restrictions.

Key technology areas included:

Heating Technologies
– Industrial Thermal Processes
– Induction Heating
– Driers, Ovens and Kilns
– Combustion Systems and Engineering
– Industrial Burners
– Steam Raising Plant
– Melting Technology
– Process Heating
Cooling Technologies
– Refrigerant Gases
– Industrial Refrigeration Systems
– Electronics Cooling
– Heat Exchange Technologies
– Cryogenics
– Liquid Cooling
Modelling and Analysis
– Fluid Mechanics
– Simulation/ Modelling
– Thermal Imaging
– Thermal Management Systems

The event gave BINDT & the UKTA an opportunity to:
• Meet individuals interested in becoming members of UKTA
• Meet other exhibitors and share “thermal knowledge”
• Promote UKTA across the European Thermal Engineering Industry

The UKTA will be at the Thermal Engineering Show – 2nd June

The UKTA will be represented at the Infrared Training Ltd conference in Liverpool on 17th May and the Thermal Engineering Show on 2nd June in Derby. We very much hope you will be able to attend either event and would welcome any feedback.

For further details visit – http://www.thethermalengineeringshow.co.uk/
Or http://www.ukta.org/news/1st-annual-thermography-conference-irt-training/

UKTA Competent Persons Scheme to Support BREEAM

bre

UKTA (United Kingdom Thermography Authority) is a special interest group affiliated to BINDT (British Institute of Non Destructive Testing) and promotes the professional application of thermography to all branches and applications of the technology.

At this time, UKTA is devising a Scheme whereby professionally qualified thermographers can be called upon to carry out surveys in the built environment such that, in association with a BREEAM assessor, credits can be awarded to projects as part of their overall BREEAM Assessment.
Having already engaged with BRE, UKTA has formed a sub-group to look specifically at the creation of a Competent Persons Scheme which BRE, UKTA and its appropriately qualified members can be engaged on projects where the developer, design team and contractor, through a BREEAM ASSESSOR, can gain credits by the adoption of a UKTA – BREEAM Thermographic Survey.

To this end, The SOR (Scheme Operating Requirements) and the SRR (Survey and Reporting Requirement) are now into penultimate draft stages. Bruce Arnold, a UKTA Committee Member is leading on these documents.
The following timescale is what we are working towards:

  1. Produce the next draft of the SRR and SOR – end May 2016
  2. Draw up a Project Plan
  3. Issue to UKTA committee members with agenda for next UKTA scheduled for 21 June in Northampton and members to either endorse Bruce’s document or bring specifics to the meeting in June.
  4. Final draft by early July
  5. Copy then to BINDT for input comments end of July
  6. Subject to BINDT approval, confer with BRE early September
  7. Expectation would be to let BRE have input
  8. Publish on UKTA website for MEMBERS only to see and comment
  9. Establish administration and governance in parallel with the above – May through end 2016.
  10. Launch the Scheme – towards end of 2016.

1st Annual Thermography Conference – IRT Training

The First Annual Thermography Conference will be aimed at individuals from any sector who use Thermography as an everyday tool to support their job.

Infrared Training Limited has a detailed insight into the Thermography marketplace at a Global level and understands the constraints of working in such a niche and highly skilled discipline that crosses a variety of applications.

Thermography Open Day – IRT Training

Open Day Invite

Infrared Training Limited (IRT) is an organisation that provides Thermography training as a core business. It based at the Jaguar/LandRover site in Liverpool and exclusively provides training with a global reach across a wide range of industries. A key objective for the organisation is the development and promotion of training and education in the field and the improvement of quality in Thermography practice. To this end IRT has developed on-line aspects of its course and training manual to reduce the number of training days, introduced the latest in educational technology in the training room and is actively promoting an active discourse on some of the wider issues around in the Thermography industry today.

To this end IRT are hosting an Open Day to:

  • Demonstrate and exhibit some of training resources and strategies
  • Provide an opportunity for a number of speakers to address some of the current areas of interest in the industry.
  • Invite key equipment distributors to show their products.
  • Generally offer an opportunity to reconnect, network and spend some time with fellow practitioners.

IRT is inviting Thermographers, Training managers, people responsible for Condition Monitoring and planned maintenance and those with a strategic overview of their company’s needs to attend the Open Day to be held on Wednesday 21st January 2015 at our offices in Liverpool. Regstration desk will be open from 10.15am with speakers starting at 11am and the speakers will finish around 2.30pm and there will be time to visit our exhibitors at this point or during the short lunch break.

We will also be offering the opportunity to take part in a Land Rover experience demonstration drive for a few lucky registrations…

Open Day Promo Flyer

New Website Launched

There has been a need for the website to be updated and modernised for several years now, so with the support of several members we now have a brand new website that not only looks great, but is feature rich and will enable us to provide information in a much more user-friendly way.

With the launch of the new site, comes the reveal of the new UKTA logo and the implementation of an approved Level 2 thermographer directory -the full list of which will be posted in October, so make sure you have submitted your application by then.

The website is not completely finished however, so please bear with us during this period where we can add new content and set up a new membership area.